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Fortran 77 Language Reference


Contents

Preface

1. Elements of FORTRAN

Standards
Extensions
Basic Terms
Character Set
Symbolic Names
Program
Statements
Executable or Nonexecutable Statements
FORTRAN Statements
Source Line Formats
Standard Fixed Format
Tab-Format
Mixing Formats
Continuation Lines
Extended Lines
Padding
Comments and Blank Lines
Directives

2. Data Types and Data Items

Types
Rules for Data Typing
Array Elements
Functions
Properties of Data Types
Constants
Character Constants
Complex Constants
COMPLEX*16 Constants
COMPLEX*32 (Quad Complex) Constants
Integer Constants
Logical Constants
Real Constants
REAL*8 (Double-Precision Real) Constants
REAL*16 (Quad Real) Constants
Typeless Constants (Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal)
Variables
Arrays
Array Declarators
Array Names with No Subscripts
Array Subscripts
Array Ordering
Substrings
Structures
Syntax
Field Declaration
Rules and Restrictions for Structures
Rules and Restrictions for Fields
Record Declaration
Record and Field Reference
Substructure Declaration
Unions and Maps
Pointers
Syntax Rules
Usage of Pointers
Address and Memory
Optimization and Pointers

3. Expressions

Expressions, Operators, and Operands
Arithmetic Expressions
Basic Arithmetic Expressions
Mixed Mode
Arithmetic Assignment
Character Expressions
Character String Assignment
Rules of Assignment
Logical Expressions
Relational Operator
Constant Expressions
Record Assignment
Evaluation of Expressions

4. Statements

ACCEPT
ASSIGN
Assignment
AUTOMATIC
BACKSPACE
BLOCK DATA
BYTE
CALL
CHARACTER
CLOSE
COMMON
COMPLEX
CONTINUE
DATA
DECODE/ENCODE
DIMENSION
DO
DO WHILE
DOUBLE COMPLEX
DOUBLE PRECISION
Example
ELSE
ELSE IF
ENCODE/DECODE
END
END DO
END FILE
END IF
END MAP
END STRUCTURE
END UNION
ENTRY
EQUIVALENCE
EXTERNAL
FORMAT
FUNCTION (External)
GO TO (Assigned)
GO TO (Computed)
GO TO (Unconditional)
IF (Arithmetic)
IF (Block)
IF (Logical)
IMPLICIT
INCLUDE
INQUIRE
INTEGER
INTRINSIC
LOGICAL
MAP
NAMELIST
OPEN
OPTIONS
PARAMETER
PAUSE
POINTER
PRINT
PROGRAM
READ
REAL
RECORD
RETURN
REWIND
SAVE
Example
Statement Function
STATIC
STOP
STRUCTURE
SUBROUTINE
TYPE
The Type Statement
UNION and MAP
VIRTUAL
VOLATILE
WRITE

5. Input and Output

General Concepts of FORTRAN I/O
Logical Units
I/O Errors
General Restriction
Kinds of I/O
Combinations of I/O
Printing Files
Special Uses of OPEN
Scratch Files
Changing I/O Initialization with IOINIT
Direct Access
Unformatted I/O
Formatted I/O
Internal Files
Sequential Formatted I/O
Direct Access I/O
Formatted I/O
Input Actions
Output Actions
Format Specifiers
Runtime Formats
Variable Format Expressions (<e>)
Unformatted I/O
Sequential Access I/O
Direct Access I/O
List-Directed I/O
Output Format
Unquoted Strings
Internal I/O
NAMELIST I/O
Syntax Rules
Restrictions
Output Actions
Input Actions
Data Syntax
Name Requests

6. Intrinsic Functions

Arithmetic and Mathematical Functions
Arithmetic
Type Conversion
Trigonometric Functions
Other Mathematical Functions
Character Functions
Miscellaneous Functions
Bit Manipulation
Environmental Inquiry Functions
Memory
Remarks
Notes on Functions
VMS Intrinsic Functions
Double-Precision Complex
Degree-Based Trigonometric
Bit-Manipulation
Multiple Integer Types
Functions Coerced to a Particular Type
Functions Translated to a Generic Name
Zero Extend

A. ASCII Character Set

B. Sample Statements

C. Data Representations

Real, Double, and Quadruple Precision
Extreme Exponents
Zero (signed)
Subnormal Number
Signed Infinity
Not a Number (NaN)
IEEE Representation of Selected Numbers
Arithmetic Operations on Extreme Values
Bits and Bytes by Architecture

D. VMS Language Extensions

Background
VMS Language Features You Get Automatically
VMS Features Requiring -xl or -vax=spec
Summary of Features That Require -xl[d]
Details of Features That Require -xl[d]
Unsupported VMS FORTRAN

Index


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