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Fortran Programmer's Guide



1. Introduction

Standards Conformance

Features of the Fortran Compilers

Related Sun Documentation

2. Fortran Input/Output

Accessing Files From Fortran 77 Programs
Accessing Named Files
Opening Files Without a Name
Preconnected Units
Opening Files Without an OPEN Statement
Passing File Names to Programs
VAX / VMS Logical File Names (f77 Only)

Direct I/O

Internal Files

Tape I/O
Using TOPEN Routines
Fortran Formatted I/O for Tape
Fortran Unformatted I/O for Tape
Tape File Representation
Using Multifile Tapes

Fortran 90 I/O Considerations

3. Program Development

Facilitating Program Builds With the make Utility
The makefile
make Command
Overriding of Macro Values
Suffix Rules in make
More Information

Version Tracking and Control With SCCS
Controlling Files With SCCS
Checking Files Out and In
More Information

4. Libraries

Understanding Libraries
Advantages of Libraries

Linker Debugging Options
Generating a Load Map
Listing Other Information
Consistent Compiling and Linking

Library Search Paths and Order
Search Order for Standard Library Paths
Library Search Path and Order -- Static Linking
Library Search Path and Order -- Dynamic Linking

Creating Static Libraries
Creation of a Simple Static Library

Creating Dynamic Libraries
Position-Independent Code and -pic
Binding Options
Naming Conventions
A Simple Dynamic Library

Libraries Provided with Sun Fortran Compilers

Shippable Libraries

5. Program Analysis and Debugging

Global Program Checking (f77 Only)
GPC Overview
How to Invoke Global Program Checking
Some Examples of -Xlist and Global Program Checking
Suboptions for Global Checking Across Routines
-Xlist Suboption Reference
Some Examples Using Suboptions

Special Compiler Options
Subscript Bounds (-C)
Undeclared Variable Types (-u)
Version Checking (-V)

Interactive Debugging With dbx and The WorkShop
Debugging Optimized Programs

Viewing Compiler Listing Diagnostics

6. Floating-Point Arithmetic


IEEE Floating-Point Arithmetic
Handling Exceptions
Trapping a Floating-Point Exception-f77 vs f90

IEEE Routines
Flags and ieee_flags()
IEEE Extreme Value Functions
Exception Handlers and ieee_handler()
Retrospective Summary
SPARC: Nonstandard Arithmetic
-ftrap=mode Compiler Options
Floating-Point Exceptions-f77 vs f90

Debugging IEEE Exceptions

Further Numerical Adventures
Simple Underflow
Continuing With the Wrong Answer
Excessive Underflow (SPARC Only)
Porting from Scientific Mainframes

7. Porting

Time Functions



Working With Files

Data Representation

Hollerith Data

Nonstandard Coding Practices
Uninitialized Variables
Aliasing Across Calls
Obscure Optimizations

Results Are Close, but Not Close Enough
Program Fails without Warning

8. Performance Profiling

The time Command
Multiprocessor Interpretation of time Output

The gprof Profiling Command
Overhead Considerations
Missing Profile Libraries

The tcov Profiling Command
"Old Style" tcov Coverage Analysis
"New Style" Enhanced tcov Analysis

I/O Profiling

9. Performance and Optimization

Choice of Compiler Options
Performance Option Reference

Other Performance Strategies
• Use Optimized Libraries
• Eliminate Performance Inhibitors

Further Reading

10. Parallelization

Speedups--What to Expect
Steps to Parallelizing a Program
Data Dependency Issues
Parallel Options and Directives Summary
Notes on Compiler Options
Specifying the Number of Processors
Stacks, Stack Sizes, and Parallelization

Automatic Parallelization
Loop Parallelization
Definitions: Array, Scalar, and Pure Scalar
Automatic Parallelization Criteria
Automatic Parallelization With Reduction Operations

Explicit Parallelization
Parallelizable Loops
Sun-Style Parallelization Directives (f77 only)
Cray-Style Parallelization Directives

Debugging Parallelized Programs

11. C-Fortran Interface

Compatibility Issues
Function or Subroutine
Data Type Compatibility
Case Sensitivity
Underscore in Names of Routines
Argument-Passing by Reference or Value
Argument Order
Array Indexing and Order
File Descriptors and stdio
File Permissions
Libraries and Linking With the f77 or f90 Command

Passing Data Arguments by Reference

Passing Data Arguments by Value

Functions that Return a Value

Labeled COMMON

Sharing I/O Between Fortran and C

Alternate Returns


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